Groundwater flow modeling of two-levels perched karstic leaking aquifers as a tool for estimating recharge and hydraulic parameters
Nadav Peleg and Haim Gvirtzman


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Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3 Perched springs in nature emerge from aquifers laying on aquitards within the unsaturated zone, some of which emerge one above the other. A finite element model was introduced, using the FEFLOW code, for simulating the groundwater flow regime in each of these aquifers, for quantifying the fraction of rain that recharges the aquifers, and for estimating the hydrogeological parameters of the aquifers and aquitards.

Many of the perched springs in Israel are found in the Judea Group aquifer, a stratified carbonate rock unit, characterized by a well-developed karst system. The Batir and Jamia springs exemplifies such a system, where Batir is the upper spring discharging at the contact between Aminadav and Moza Formations, and Jamia is the lower one, discharging at the contact between Kesalon and Sorek Formations. The 25-year-long measured spring’s hydrographs were used to calibrate the spring’s coefficients, the hydraulic conductivities of the different layers, the karst features and the yearly amount of rain recharging the spring.


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